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Kent State Shootings: Selected Articles

Special Collections and Archives

Kent State Shootings: Selected Articles

Special Collections and Archives

Kent State Shootings: Selected Articles

May 4 Annotated Bibliography

Selected May 4 Articles and Periodical Issues

Updated by Jasmine Jefferson, June 2019; Last updated: April 2024

PLEASE NOTE: This bibliography is intended to be inclusive of selected articles and periodical issues published about the Kent State shootings. Inclusion on this list does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement of the works in question. Users should carefully assess the content of these works before utilizing for curricular or scholarly purposes. The articles listed below may be found in Special Collections and Archives. They are filed in the May 4 Newspaper Clippings, Magazines, and Journal Articles collection, with the exception of a few items that are cataloged and shelved in the book collection, noted below. Items marked with an asterisk (*) are filed in the oversized boxes of this collection.

By Title (no author listed)

"The Background of the Tragedy at Kent State University." American Legion. (July 1970) 22-27.

Presents the American Legion's argument that SDS had been working for two years to create a "major confrontation" on campus and that May 4 was the culmination of their efforts. Gives factual background on SDS activities in 1968-69.

"Cambodia, Kent State, editorial." Jewish Currents. (June, 1970) 3.

Short editorial placing May 4 in context with other protests in America.

"Four Random, Pointless Deaths." Newsweek. (May 18, 1970) 34.

Short glimpses into the lives of the four students killed at Kent State.

"The Guard vs. Disorder." National Guardsman. Florida Edition. (June 1970) 2-12.

Looks at the National Guard's activity on campuses nation-wide, broken down, state by state.

"Kent State One Year Later: On the Long Road Back." U.S. News and World Report. (June 14, 1971) 17-19.

A self proclaimed, "First-Hand Report," this article, which includes interviews with students, faculty, and staff, looks at the effects of May 4, 1970 on the university and student body.

"Kent State: Four Deaths at Noon." Life. (May 15, 1970) 30-35. *

Cover Story. Retells what happened, including photos and includes comments from Miller and Krause's parents.

"Kent State: Martyrdom That Shook the Country." Time. (May 18, 1970) 13-14.

Facts and background on May 4, including a short obituary of the 4 victims. Posits that the Guards' tactical leadership is inadequate and their wisdom and professionalism is questionable.,33009,909174,00.html

"My God! They're Killing Us." Newsweek. (May 18, 1970) 33-33F.

May 4 story; includes a diagram/map of student/guard movement and where students were hit. Includes color photos.

"The Nation at War with War." Time. (May 18, 1970) 6.

Discusses campus protests heightening nation-wide as a result of Kent and government response.

"The Nation at War with War." Time. (May 18, 1970) 6.

Discusses campus protests heightening nation-wide as a result of Kent and government response.

"The Price of Campus Peace." Life. (May 29, 1970) 38. *

Editorial. Discusses whether university administrations should speak out against the war and allow orderly anti-war activities. Takes an affirmative stance.

"Public Supports National Guard 20 to 1." On Guard. (Ohio National Guard Publication) 1:1 (June 1970) 2.

Reports that of the total number of pieces of mail received by the Ohio Adjutant General's Department, 9,635 commended the guards vs. 454 which were critical of the guard.

"The Rebellion on Campus." Newsweek. (May 18, 1970) 28-30.

Discusses nation-wide reactions on campus to the shootings at Kent.

"Remembering May 4." Akron Beacon Journal. (April 29, 1990) G1+.

Includes readers' letters, 20 years later, answering the question: "Were you there, May 4, 1970?"

"A Search for Peace and Understanding." U.S. News and World Report. (June 14, 1971) 19-20.

Looks at the attitudes of townspeople in downtown Kent. Notes that whiles steps have been taken to improve relations between the town and the university, many in the town still harbor bad sentiment towards the students.

"'70: Grief for the Fallen at Kent State." The 70s. Special Issue. The Decade in Pictures. Life. (December 1979) 36-37. *

Features John Filo's most famous May 4 photograph.

"Struggle to Recovery" Kent. (June 1970) 1+. *

Details the events of May and June, 1970, including commencement and the first day of summer session when the university reopened.

"Tragedy in our Midst...A Special Report." Akron Beacon Journal. (May 24, 1970) A17+

Pulitzer Prize winner special section. Includes a map of the campus, showing where the students shot were standing and photographs. One article includes comments from National Guardsmen on what was happening and gives information about the wounded students and those killed, as pieced together from their friends and those around them. A second article retells the events of May 1-4. A third article looks more critically at the Guard and its history, make-up, and purpose. A last blurb notes that three of the nine injured students were still in the hospital.

"Turn From Campus Violence: The Reasons." U.S. News and World Report. (October 25, 1971) 40.

Argues that students are now looking for ways "inside the system" to promote and affect change. Gives reasons for this change including "rock concers passe," tougher curricula, "climate of serenity,"new pragmatism," "achieve within," and "Kent State: a turning point."

"Who Guards Against the Guard?" Newsweek. (May 18, 1970) 33F.

Questions whether Guardsmen are capable of coping with campus unrest. Notes that Ohio Guidelines are less strict than federal guidelines.

"Writers' Reaction to the Guard." National Guardsman. Florida Edition. (June 1970) 14-15.

Collection of excerpts of letters to the editor, supporting the guard, from around the country.

By Author Name

Angell, Roger. “The Aftermath of The Kent State Shootings.” In Talk of the Town section. The New Yorker. (May 16, 1970): 34-35.

This short article briefly discusses the student movement after May 4 including the trip to Washington D.C. where President Nixon met with a handful of students.

Arthrell, Bill. “Kent State: Destruction of Civil Liberties.” Alternatives. 5 (Winter 1977-1978): 5-9.

Discusses the Gym Annex protest (Tent City) and the actions of the May 4th Coalition to fight the building of a gym annex over a portion of the site of the Kent State shootings of which Arthrell was a survivor.

Barbato, Carole A. "'Embracing Their Memories': Accounts of Loss and May 4, 1970." Journal of Loss and Trauma. 8 (2003): 73-98.

Through the examination of accounts and eyewitness stories, the author explores losses and traumas associated with the Kent State shootings.

Barber, Cindy. "War at Kent State." Cleveland Free Times. (May 3-9, 1995) 7-11.

Discusses the role of Glenn Frank and the peace marshalls on May 4, 1970. Also looks at SDS activities in North East Ohio in the late 1960s.

Berardinelli, Dan and Carl Monday. "May 4 Remembered: the End of Innocence." Scene. (May 3-9, 1990) 9.

Berardinelli, a honorary fellow in English at Kent writes about his experience as a bystander on May 4, 1970 and how he would present it if writing a book. Monday, a Kent State freshman looks back at May 4, 20 years later.

Bills, Scott, Tim Smith and S.R. Thulin, eds. Kent State: Ten Years After. (4.2) 1980. Special Issue of the Left Review (Kent).

The Spring 1980 issue of the Left Review (4.2) is, as Thulin noted, an "anthology of retrospective analyses" aimed at "provid[ing] a structural means by which differing, even provocative views might penetrate the 'truth' of May fourth with the benefit of a decade's observation as a firm foundation of thought." This item is located in the book collection (Spec Coll LD4191.O72 K33 1980).

Brown, Steven R. and Thomas D. Ungs. "Representativeness and the Study of Political Behavior: An Application of Q Technique to Reactions to the Kent State Incident." Social Science Quarterly. (December 1970) 514-526.

Aimed at political and behavioral scientists. Discusses the need for survey samples to be representative of both the population being surveyed and the stimulus/objects research design. The Kent State Incident is used as an example.

Carter, Janice. "The Other Kent State Photographer, Howard E. Ruffner." The Plain Dealer Magazine. (April 29, 1976) 34.

Ruffner, whose photographs were on the cover of Life magazine, May 15, 1970, discusses photographing May 4, 1970 and how the experience affected him.

Cook, Russell J. "Activist Journalism and Coorientation: Dorothy Fuldheim and the Kent State Shootings." Paper presented at the Association of Jesuit Colleges and Universities Communication Conference. Marquette U., Milwaukee, WI, August 1991.

The paper discusses the popular news commentator Dorothy Fuldheim whose condemnation of the killings at Kent State University in May 1970 elicited a "virulent audience response and threatened her career as a journalist." Fuldheim's activities around the time of the shootings "are recounted, and her activist journalism is explained in terms of a model of journalists, news orientation."

Corelis, Jon. "Kent State Reconsidered as Nightmare." Journal of Psychohistory 8.2 (1980) 137-147.

Discusses tension between the old and young, war as infanticide, and Kent State as part of that struggle between generations. 

Crump, Sarah. "May 4 Journal." Cleveland Magazine. 24.5 (May 1995) 58-63.

25 years later, Dean Kahler, Terry Lucas, Mary Ann Vecchio, Jim Myers, Richard A. Bredemeier, and Al Thompson recall May 4, 1970.

Cusella, Louis P. "Real-Fiction Versus Historical Reality: Rhetorical Purification in 'Kent State' - The Docudrama." Communication Quarterly. 30.3 (Summer 1982) 159-164.

William Schroeder's college roommate, now a Professor of Communication, discusses the portrayal of Bill in the 1981 NBC docudrama, comparing it to the Bill he knew personally.

Dante, Harris L. "The Kent State Tragedy: Lessons for Teachers." Social Education. 35.4 (1971) 357-361.

The Chairman of the Faculty Senate at Kent State from April 1969-September 1970 gives a faculty perspective on May 4 and its aftermath. Also discusses the issues involved in teaching about May 4, 1970.

Day, Jack G. and Shari M. Sweeney. "The Kent State Trials." (In Landmark Law. Cleveland: The Association, 1998) 52-53.

This chapter, located in the book Landmark Law (Spec Coll LD4191.O72 D39 1998) summarizes and contextualizes the trials resulting from May 4, 1970.

DeBrossee, Jim. “Four Dead in Ohio.” Journalism History. (Spring 2013) 40.

Discusses the guard-dog theory of the press and Chomsky’s propaganda model in relation to the events of May 4 and the role of the media.

Dubarry, Thibaut. "La Garde Nationale: Américaine dans les émeutes des années 1960." a Revue historique des armées. (2022) 71-80.

Discusses the use of the United States National Guard in domestic riots throughout the 1960's. 

Eckert, Erica. "Learning from the tragedy at Kent State forty years after May 4.” About Campus. (March/April 2010). 2-10.

Discusses how educators can examine these events in an effort to help students understand the social and cultural context of May 4, 1970 and the magnitude of its implications. The article also discusses the political climate leading up to and shortly after May 4, 1970.

Eckert, Erica. "Student Affairs Crisis Management at Kent State in 1970: 50 Years Later." Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice. (2023). 60(4), 550-562.

This case study explores the tragedy and experiences of student affairs professionals at KSU leading up to and after the shootings. 

Engdahl, David E. "Due Process Forbids Soldiers in Civil Disorders." American Report. (November 12, 1971) 6-S.

Shortened version of "Soldiers, Riots, and Revolution: The Law and History of Military Troops in Civil Disorders."

Engdahl, David E. "Soldiers, Riots, and Revolution: The Law and History of Military Troops in Civil Disorders." Iowa Law Review. 57 (1971) 1-73.

Discusses the historical roots of "due process" of law in conjunction with military attempts at social control through England, the American Revolution, the Civil War, and the period following and shows how they were "ravaged" at Kent.

Erenrich, Susie, ed. Kent and Jackson State, 1970-1990. Vietnam Generation, Inc., (2.2) 1990. Special Issue of Vietnam Generation.

This special issue of Vietnam Generation (2.2), is "a large and varied anthology of personal narratives, scholarly articles, poetry, fiction, photography and opinion pieces" contributed by people "personally involved in the struggle over the meaning of the Kent and/or Jackson State shootings in 1970." This item is located in the book collection (Spec Coll LD4191.O72 K354 1990).

Eszterhas, Joe and Michael Roberts. "James Michener's Kent State: A Study in Distortion." The Progressive (September 1971) 35-40.

The authors discuss their study of Michener's account of the Kent State shootings in light of their own experiences of, investigative reporting on, and eventual writing of a book on the event. The article discusses several problems in Michener's work.

Fitt, Alfred B. "The National Guard and Civil Disturbance." City. (August/September 1970) 41-43.

"A former Defense Department official who has seen the Guard in action both on the campus and in the streets of Detroit suggests that its role be reexamined and its practices reformed."

Furlong, William Barry. "The Guardsmen's View of the Tragedy at Kent State." New York Times Magazine. (June 21, 1970) 12.

An article written from a Guardsmen's point-of-view. Provides an interesting look at the composition of the Guard, their view of being a Guardsman and the role of the National Guard in situations of civil disorder.

Gallagher, Thomas. "The Tragedy at Kent State." Good Housekeeping. (October 1970) 83.

Looks at the events of May 1-4, including glimpses into the lives of Jeff, Sandy, Allison, and Bill in the days before May 4, 1970.

Gelman, David. "Even at Kent State, the Fervor has Faded. Newsday. (October 15, 1973) 4A.

Notes that as those who were present on May 4, 1970 graduate, Kent State students are becoming more cynical and less activist.

Gillman, Peter. "Death on the Campus." (London) Sunday Times. (November 4, 1973) 47-51. *

Introduction and examination of Peter Davies' book The Truth About Kent State. Includes 24 pictures.

Goetz, Lori. "Dichotomies of Free Speech: A Comparative Analysis of Cincinnati and Louisville Newspaper Reaction to Kent State." Perspectives in History. XIX (2003-2004): 75-89.

Goetz compares editorial content of two newspapers--one in Louisville, KY and one in Cincinnati, OH--in the three weeks following the Kent State shootings to explore and analyze three dichotomies of speech.

Gorden, William I. and Kelley, Robert A. "A Look at the Fire Symbol Before and After May 4, 1970." Free Speech Yearbook. (1974): 18-28.

Article proposes how fire served rhetorical purposes surrounding the events of May 4, 1970.

Grace, Don. "Campus Unrest." Ohio Bell/Perspective. (July 24, 1970) 10-12.

Ohio Bell's Employee Publication includes an article on Kent State focusing on two employees, Don Wrentmore, whose son was shot and wounded on May 4, and Bill Clossey, a Guardsman who was called up for duty at Kent.

Grace, Thomas M. "Lessons in Law and Order: The Ohio National Guard and the Kent State Killings." Keynote paper presented at the History Symposium: New Directions in Scholarship on the Vietnam War. Kent State University, February 29, 2020.

Grace systematically probes many of the prevailing "myths" about the National Guardsmen who were deployed at Kent State University on May 4, 1970 and shot and killed four students. Relying on archival source evidence, Grace dispels many commonly held perceptions about the ages of the Guardsmen, their levels of experience, and explanations for their actions, including why many fired their weapons, on May 4, 1970.

Grace, Thomas M. "Personal reflections on May 4." (In From Camelot to Kent State. New York : Times Books, 1987.) 329-335.

Tom Grace was shot on May 4, 1970. He shares his experience and reflections on that fateful day. This essay is located in the book From Camelot to Kent State (Spec Coll E841 .F74 1987).

Graham, Mark W. “Memorialising May 4, 1970 at Kent State University: Reflections on Collective Memory, Public Art and Religious Criticism.” Literature and Theology. (December 2006). 424-43.

Discusses the efforts to memorialize the events of May 4 and compares those efforts to those of the memorialization of the events of September 11th 2001.

Gregory Jr., Stanford W. and Jerry M. Lewis. "Symbols of Collective Memory: the Social Process of Memorializing May 4, 1970, at Kent State University." Symbolic Interaction. 11.2 (1988) 213-233.

This heavily theoretical article, aimed at social scientists, proposes a model to understand how public memorials are created. Also asserts the need for memorials to reflect the event memorialized in such a way that consensus and solidarity can be found in the community.

Hamburger, Philip. "A Reporter at Large: Aftermath." The New Yorker. (June 5, 1971) 106.

Looks at the aftermath of May 4, 1970, a year later.

Hancock, Kate. "At the Heart of History: Ohioans Recall the 20th Century." Echoes Magazine. (The Ohio Historical Society) (Nov. 15, 1999).

See section on Kent State Shootings. Talks about Dean Kahler, a wounded casualty of the Kent State shootings. Includes photographs.

Henderson, Ron. "18 Months Later: Families of Kent Dead Speak Out." American Report. (November 12, 1971) 12-S.

October 9, 1971 interview with Florence Schroeder, Sarah and Martin Scheuer, Doris and Arthur Krause, and Steven Sindell (Mr. Krause's attorney).

Hoerl, Kristen. “Commemorating the Kent State Tragedy Through Victims’ Trauma in Television News Coverage, 1990-2000." Communication Review. (2009) 107-131.

Critically discusses the main stream media coverage that commemorated the events of May 4 from 1990-2000.

Holstein, Elaine. "And Still No Honest Apology." The New York Times. (April 23, 1990) A19.

Mother of Jeffrey Miller, discusses the pain of losing her son and of the reactions of others toward the events of May 4, 1970 in the twenty years since Jeff's death.

Holstein, Elaine. "The Last Word: Anniversary." The Progressive. 52.5 (1988) 34.

Mother of Jeffrey Miller, discusses the pain of losing her son on May 4, 1970 and gives insight into Jeffrey Miller's life. She notes "[t]he bullet that ended Jeff's life also destroyed the person I had been - a naive, politically unaware woman."

Howard, Bob. "The Manipulation of May 4 for Political Ends." Left Review. 2.3 (Spring 78).

Discusses the use of "official language" in obscuring and misrepresenting the events and facts surrounding May 4, 1970 and its aftermath.

Hughes-Watkins, Lae’l. “Between Two Worlds: A Look at the Impact of the Black Campus Movement on the Anti-War Era of 1968-1970 at Kent State University.” Ohio History. (2017) 41-64.

Discusses Black student protests on Kent State University campus before and during the anti-war movement and May 4.

James, Andrew L. J. "Four dead in O-HI-O." Christianity and Crisis. (June 18, 1990) 188-189.

Notes that the "guilty" have not offered any sort of conciliatory gesture. Argues that "the arrogance--together with the blind ambition and dedicated stupidity-- that produced Vietnam goes right on. Worse yet, its posterity praises the memory of the noise, and obliterates the pain."

Keerdoja, Eileen and Jon Lowell. "Kent State's Haunting Legacy." Newsweek. (April 28, 1980).

Notes legal battle's closure, the Segal sculpture, and the 1977 gym controversy. Also updates information about Mary Vecchio, the girl in the famous photo.

Keller, Gordon W. "Kent State a Year Later." Dissent. (April 1971) 171-174.

Argues that Kent State has been too politicized, that the underlying causes are apolitical, and that strain between the town and university still exists. Argues that killings were not political, but rather "the work of incompetant men with little experience in understanding student unrest." Calls Kent State a "symbol for institutions and systems that have gotten out of human and humane control."

Keller, Gordon W. "Middle America Against the University: The Kent State Grand Jury." Humanist. (Mar/Apr. 1971) 28.

Notes that with the blame and accountability for the May 4 killings being put on the victims, rather than on the Guardsmen who shot them, the role of the university, of free speech, and of political criticism may be the next target.

Kilpatrick, James J. "Looking Behind the Triggers in Ohio." The National Guardsman. Florida Edition. (June 1970) 15.

Claims that the National Guard is not responsible for tragedy at Kent, rather it is the "sickness of permissiveness" pervading society.

Krause, Arthur S. "A Memo to Mr. Nixon." New York Times. May 7, 1978.

Editorial by the father of Allison Krause. Takes the form of a letter to Nixon, recounting his disappointment as a parent with Nixon's "personal condolences and public political condemnation."

Krause, Arthur S. "May 4, 1970." New York Times. May 4, 1972.

Allison Krause's father recounts in an editorial finding out about the death of his daughter and his feelings about the delay in justice.

Krause, Arthur S. "The Kent State Killings: How Would You Explain to People..." Washington Post. July 10, 1971.

Krause asks Nixon how he "explains to people that [he] elected not to enforce the law?"

Lander, Byron G. "Functions of Letters to the Editor: a Re-Examination." Journalism Quarterly. 49.1 (1972) 142-43.

Studies the letters to the editor published in the Record-Courier May 7 - May 26, 1970. Gives readers an idea of the town's reaction to the incident. Also looks at the effects of such letters.

Levine, Barry. "With Liberty and Justice for All." American Report. (November 12, 1971) 10-S.

Levine, a close friend of Allison Krause, was with her when she was shot. He reflects on the attitude of the young towards justice.

Lewis, Jerry M. "Black Day in May." American History Illustrated. 25.2 (1990) 34-35.

Written eyewitness account from a Kent State University Professor of Sociology and peace marshal.

Lewis, Jerry M. "Making Sense of Kent State." Intellect. (March 1976) 448-450.

Looks at different approaches to making sense of May 4, specifically the narrow political and broader historical interpretations.

Lewis, Jerry M. "The Kent Story: an Eyewitness Account." American Report. (November 12, 1971) 3-S.

Written eyewitness account from a Kent State University Professor of Sociology and peace marshal.

Lewis, Jerry M. and Thomas R. Hensley. "The May 4 Shootings at Kent State University: the Search for Historical Accuracy." Also published in revised form by the Ohio Council for the Social Studies Review. 34.1 (Summer 1998) 9-21.

Aimed at high school social science teachers as a resource to correct the historical inaccuracies and misperceptions surrounding the May 4th shootings at Kent State University. Answers 12 frequently asked questions and includes a short annotated bibliography.

Lindquist, David. “May 4, 1970: How U.S. History Textbooks Portray the Kent State Shootings.” Ohio Social Studies Review. (2011) 41-48.

This article evaluates the coverage of May 4 events in three textbooks commonly used in high schools across the U.S.

Lombardi, John. "A Lot of People Were Crying and the Guard Walked Away." Rolling Stone. (June 11, 1970) 6-8.

Includes interviews with many students and people in the town and on campus. Provides a perspective of the feelings of many present on May 4, 1970.

Malone, Robert and George D. Eastman. "The Kent State Story, Pt. I" The Police Chief. November 1978. 38-40.

Gives brief background into May 4, 1970 and the aftermath leading up to the 1977 Gym Controversy.

Malone, Robert and George D. Eastman. "The Kent State Story, Pt. II" The Police Chief. December 1978. 77-82.

Details the 1977 Gym Controversy and police response.

McCormick, Patricia. "The Girl in the Kent State Photo." The Washington Post Magazine. April 19, 2021.

In 1970, John Filo's photograph of fourteen year old Mary Ann Vecchio kneeling over Jeffrey Miller's body immediately became iconic. The article details the life of Mary Ann Vecchio after the events of May 4, 1970, and the burden of being considered a national symbol. 

McGinnis, Maria, ed. The Burr Magazine. Spring 2020.

Kent State University student publication Burr Magazine features a full issue of content related to the 50th anniversary of the Kent State shootings. Includes features on the Kent State Shootings Oral History Project; Kent SDS; the Tent City/Gym Annex Protest; the evolution of the May 4 shootings site; 50 years of pop culture; the Jackson State killings; May 4 and its connection to the Kent music scene; May 4's impact on student perceptions of the University; fashion and dissent; police and military presence at college protests; a remembrance of Sandra Scheuer through the eyes of a classmate; and profiles of several May 4 educators (Roseann Canfora, Eugene Shelton, Mwatabu Okantah, Idris Kabir Syed); a reflection on the legacy of May 4 today. Note: This issue is currently available online only.

Mirow, Deena. "Shots Fired at Kent State Are Still Echoing in Town." Plain Dealer. 12/27/71.

Look at town-gown relations over a year later. Includes quotes from KSU President Glenn A. Olds.

Moorhead, William S. "Have We Learned Anything from Kent State?" Congressional Record. (May 4, 1972).

The Honorable Representative from Pennsylvania questions how the President, in good faith, can handle the tragedy as he has, and notes how ashamed of the Justice Department's handling of the situation he feels.

Moorhead, William S. "Still No Justice For Kent State." Congressional Record. (August 18, 1972) E7603-E7605.

The Honorable Representative from Pennsylvania, notes his concern about the administration's handling of May 4, and enters into the Record an account entitled "Kent State University's Petition to the White House: Ten Months of Deceit."

Moyer, Cindy and Beverly Knowles. "Two Kent State TSPs [Theta Sigma Phi's] Tell of Violence, Sorrow and the Unanswered 'Why?'" The Matrix. (Summer 1970) 3.

Moyer, a graduating senior and managing editor of the Daily Kent Stater and Beverly Knowles, a junior journalism major, write about what they experienced May 4, 1970.

Munves, James. "More Than People Died At Kent State." The Nation. (April 26, 1980) 492-494.

Examines the effects of the legal aftermath of May 4, 1970 and argues that "nothing that grew out of the shootings affirms that our liberties remain intact."

O'Hara, John Fitzgerald. "Kent State/May 4 and Postwar Memory." American Quarterly. 58 (June 2006) 301-328.

Discusses the struggle between the public and Kent State University for recognition and memorialization of May 4.

O’Hara, John Fitzgerald. "The Man Who Started the Killings at Kent State: The Myron Pryor Lie Detector Test." Sixties: A Journal of History, Politics & Culture. (June 2016) 79-114.

Discusses the role of Myron Pryor in the May 4 Kent State shootings.

Olivas, Michael A. "Snapshots From Three Decades: The Law and Higher Education." Change. (March/April 1990) 64-69.

Examines different photographs of incidents which through which the law impacted higher education. One of those pictures is of Jeffrey Miller, May 4, 1970. Recalls his experience, having been a student in Ohio at that time and the impact it had on student activism since.

Pekkamen, John. "A boy who was just there watching and making up his mind." Life. (May 15, 1970) 36-37. *

Story about Bill Schroeder. Notes that he was on a ROTC scholarship and was at the rally on May 4 as an observer, not a participant.

Polner, Murray. "Wanted: The Truth About the Kent State Killings." History News Network. (April 26, 2004).

Polner, author of No Victory Parades: The Return of the Vietnam Veteran, calls on "fair-minded" historians to find out what really happened at Kent State and why.

Post, Chris. "Beyond Kent State? May 4 and Commemorating Violence in Public Spaces." Geoforum. (November 2016) 142-152.

Discusses the commemorative landscape of Kent State University and the May 4 memorials across campus.

Rabovsky, Marty. "Here's Buildup, Aftermath of Tragic Day at Kent State." Canton Repository. (May 25, 1970) 9.

Part 2 of 2. Claims that National Guardsmen, unable to hear verbal commands due to the noise, saw a captain point his swagger stick towards the crowd and assumed it was an order to fire. Continues the "human side" with the story of a guardsman from his being called up for action to ending up in the hospital for injuries.

Rabovsky, Marty. "Human Side of Kent: Tragedy in Fatal Week Reconstructed." Canton Repository. (May 24, 1970) 14.

Part 1 of 2. Details the events of May 1-3 and the National Guard's role.

Ranta, Hillard K. "After 10 years, recalling a tocsin of the '70s: Kent State! A Pastor's Perspective," Lutheran Forum. Reprint. (Advent, 1979) 1-5.

A Kent State University campus pastor reflects back on the Kent State shootings on the tenth anniversary of the event.

Reiff, Rick. "Nine Lives: Looking Up the Survivors of 1970." Beacon: The Sunday Magazine of the Akron Beacon Journal. (May 4, 1980) 12+.

Profiles the students wounded on May 4, 1970, ten years later.

Ricci, James. "Tormented Crusader." Akron Beacon Journal. Sunday Magazine. (June 25, 1972) 6-11.

About Arthur Krause, father of Allison Krause, and the legal battle he began for the truth about his daughter's death.

Robinson, William. "Commemorating the Past." Inland Architect. (July/August 1986) 4-8.

Looks at different memorials to May 4, 1970 and the national design competition in particular.

Rosen, Sanford Jay. "Operation Challenge." Civil Liberties. (December 1970) 3-4.

Discusses issues and legal actions being taken in the aftermath of May 4.

Rosen, Sanford Jay. "The Greening of the Scranton Commission." AAUP Bulletin. 57.4 (1971) 506-510.

Using Charles A. Reich's book, The Greening of America, as a framework for understanding the youth counterculture, Rosen critiques the Scranton Commission's Report.

Rosenblatt, Stanley. "The National Guard is a National Menace." in Justice Denied. Nash: LA, 1971. 235-255.

Looks at the differences between federal guidelines for the National Guard and Ohio standards, as well as the usage of the National Guard in Ohio to argue that what happened on May 4, 1970 was result of Rhodes' campaigning, politics, and state guidelines which gave individual Guardsmen more authority than federal standards.

Rousmaniere, Kate. "The Image of a Political Life." Vitae Scholasticae. 36.1 (2019) 18-34.

The author explores her political awakening as a college student. She participated in a Kent State Tent City/Gym Annex rally at which she heard a man (Carter Dodge) speak--an event that contributed to her emerging political activism. One of her few photographic mementos of that time was a photograph that included the man whose speech she had heard. The author knew nothing more of Dodge (including his name) until many years later. The life of Dodge, a Vietnam Veteran and graduate student at the time of the Gym Annex protests, is further explored in the article. As the author notes in the article's conclusion, "[o]ne purpose of this essay is to reflect on the personal meaning of politics in a political era."

Rudrum, Alan. "The Kent State Shootings." The Listener. (October 8, 1970) 472-473.

Former KSU Professor discusses the roots of student/administration/town relations with regard to events of 1968-69.

Sayre, Nora. "Kent State: Victims, Survivors, Heirs." Ms. (September 1975) 5.

Looks back 5 years later at the mood of students, faculty, and the town in Kent. Notes student hopelessness/apathy towards politics and change as Kent police aggressiveness in years following as effects of May 4, 1970.

Segal, Erich. "Death Story." Ladies Home Journal. (October 1970) 100.

Looks at the death of Allison Krause and the tragedy at Kent. Decries the violence that killed innocent children.

Semas, Philip. "Kent State 'Is Where It Happened--It Must Never Happen Again'." Chronicle of Higher Education. (May 25, 1970) 1.

Discusses what was happening at Kent a few weeks after the shootings.

Senn, Jan, ed. Kent State Magazine. Spring/Summer 2020.

This issue of Kent State Magazine featured significant content about the 50th Commemoration of May 4. Included are an essay by Kent State President, Todd Diacon; an article on the Memorials of May 4; a feature on the nine students who were wounded casualties on May 4, 1970; a feature on the lives of the four students killed on May 4, 1970, focusing on content that was exhibited by the May 4 Visitors Center; and short features on the history of the May 4 Collection established by the Kent State Libraries in May 1970, which is administered by the department of Special Collections & Archives; the Mapping May 4 project (Jennifer Mapes and Sara Koopman); the Armed with our Voices traveling exhibit (Wick Poetry Center); the Augmented Reality May 4 Sites project; and a FlashBACK feature on the meeting in fall 2019 of John Cleary (shot and seriously injured on May 4, 1970) and student-photographer Howard Ruffner whose famous photograph of Cleary receiving medical aid from fellow students after he was shot became famous on the cover of LIFE magazine.

Sindell, Steven. "Kent State: A Legal Overview." American Report. (Nov. 12, 1971) 8-S.

Lawyer for five of the shooting victims describes the legal issues and hurdles for the victims.

Smith, Geoffrey S. Peace & Change. (21.2) 1996.

The April 1996 issue of Peace & Change (21:2) was a "special forum issue" for the "Greater Kent State Era." This issue includes an introduction by Geoffrey S. Smith, plus four essays on the subject: "The Greater Kent State Era: Legacies of Student Rebellions and State Repression" by Darlene Clark Hine, "The Place of Dissent in Inquiry, Learning, and Reflection" by Michael Schwartz, "Reading McNamara: Vietnam and Kent State" by Todd Gitlin and "Empire, Imaginative Geography, and the May 4th Movement" by Scott L. Bills. There is also an article in the research note section entitled "Assessing the Meaning of Massacre: Boston (1770) and Kent State (1970)" by Ronald Hatzenbuehler. The articles in this issue of Peace and Change, explore the impact of May 4, 1970 and its aftermath.

Smith, Joan, ed. The Burr Magazine. Spring 1990.

Kent State University student publication Burr Magazine features content related to the 20th anniversary of the Kent State shootings. Includes features on wounded student, Dean Kahler, photographer and Pulitzer Prize winner, John Filo, a search for a May 4 monument, and remembrance of the students killed and wounded on May 4, 1970.

Steidl, Christina R. "Remembering May 4, 1970: Integrating the Commemorative Field at Kent State." American Sociological Review. (October 2013) 749-772.

According to the abstract, this article discusses “This study traces the creation maintenance and transformation of collective memory of the May 4, shootings at Kent State from.1970 to 2013 using archival sources, media accounts and participant observation.”

Stevens, Mark and Cathleen McGuigan. "Kent State Memorial" Newsweek. (September 11, 1978) 99.

About George Segal's "Abraham and Issac" sculpture's rejection at Kent State.

Stone, I. F. "Strange Lessons For The Young At Kent State." I. F. Stone's Bi-Weekly. (November 2, 1970) 1+.

Argues that the grand jury report distorts Kent State, its student population, and what happened there, and notes its conflicts with the FBI and Scranton Commission reports. Further argues that the gag order placed on criticism of the report is a distortion of justice. Questions the lessons of justice being taught to the youth as a result.

Thomas, Charles. "The Kent State Massacre: Blood On Whose Hands?" Gallery. (April 1979) 39.

In-depth article by a former National Archives employee, details the events of April 30 - May 4, 1970.

Whelton, Clark. "The Guard's Grim Role: Bringing the War Home." The Village Voice. (July 9, 1970) 13.

Looks at the Guard's role and composition, and the problems and difficulties which result.

Wischmann, Lesley. "Four Dead in Ohio." American History Illustrated. 25.2 (1990) 70-72.

Descriptive article of the events of early May. Includes information about controversy surrounding Terry Norman, and the legal aftermath.

Wolman, Benson A. "Kent State Five Years Later." Civil Liberties. (April 1975) 1.

Executive Director of the ACLU of Ohio, opens with the impact of May 4 on the Scheuer family and goes on to note the different cases and legal actions, related to May 4, 1970, the ACLU has been engaged in.

Young, Amanda, ed. The Burr (May 4, 2000 edition).

Brings a personal and "human" side to the shootings. Cover features pictures of Allison, Bill, Sandy, and Jeff when they were young. Also includes pictures of them near the site of the shooting minutes before they were shot. Articles include: Thirty Years of May, Then I Was Shot, The Right To Be Afraid, Kent Twenty-Five, The Gibbs/Green Affair, Brother and Sister, Beware, If History Repeated Itself and Students of a Different Era. The web site suppliments the print version with additional articles as well as those printed. Includes links to previous May editions of the Burr.