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Style Manuals & Writing Guides

Kent State librarians recommend:

RefWorks | Citation Generators | Citing Electronic Resources | APA Style | MLA Style | Turabian and Chicago Style | AAG (Geography) | AMA and Vancouver Style | Legal Citation (Bluebook) | Citing Government Publications | Writing Guides


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RefWorks is a Web-based service that enables a user to create a personal database of selected references either by importing from an online research database or by inputting manually. This database is then searchable, enabling a user to select needed references for a paper and easily generate a bibliography in a given bibliographic style.
For more about RefWorks and available help

Citation Generators

Citation Machine is a free interactive web tool designed to assist in generating APA, MLA and Chicago style citations (Turabian Style is under development.) The primary goal of this tool is to make is so easy to credit information sources, there is virtually no reason not to. Part of the Landmarks for Schools Web site.

A project of Heckman Library, Calvin College - KnightCite is a free resource that can be used to create citations in MLA, APA and Chicago formats for many types of print and electronic resources .

Citing Electronic Resources

Guidelines for citing electronic resources using MLA and Chicago styles for a variety of specialized electronic resources on the web including films, recorded sound, photographs, and more, uses materials from the Library of Congress' online collections as examples.

APA Style Manuals & Citation Guides (psychology, education and other social sciences)

This is a basic APA handout that gives examples of books, articles and web resources. It has been updated to reflect the changes of the 6th edition.

This LibGuide provides information on how to create citations in APA format. Explanations are provided along with examples.

From the American Psychological Association. This site is a guide to the revised and updated sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. This link goes directly to frequently asked questions about APA citations and style.

From Northern Michigan University, this site provides examples of APA citations, including citations of electronic materials using the newly revised APA style guidelines.

Tutorial introducing APA style from the University of Southern Mississippi Libraries. Includes information on formatting your paper, doing parenthetical or in-text references and creating a reference list.

MLA Style Manuals & Citation Guides (literature, arts and humanities)

This guide to the new 7th edition of the MLA Handbook is provided by Scotsdale Community College.

Provides an introduction to MLA 7, sample references, including web sources and a guide to paranthetical citation.

This site reviews the changes to MLA style found in the new 7th edition (April 2009.) Provided by the OWL (Online Writing Lab) at Purdue University.

Produced by NMU, this guide offers examples of MLA Style, 6th edition.

Turabian & Chicago Style Manuals & Citation Guides (multidisciplinary)

Annals of the Association of American Geographers style manual for publication. The style guide is available as guidelines for authors and is often used by Geographers as the preferred citation style. It uses many elements from the Chicago Manual of Style.
Guidelines for author submission

Chicago Manual of Style Online
Style manual for writers of research and professional papers.

Part of the Chicago Manual of Style Online site. Gives common examples of materials cited in both the Chicago humanities style and the Chicago author-date system. Includes citations for electronic formats.

Basic guidelines for Turabian or Chicago citation formats prepared by the Western Carolina University Writing Center. Includes footnote and bibliography citation examples.

AMA & Vancouver Style Manuals & Citation Guides: (medicine, health, and biological sciences)

Based on the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition. Prepared by Long Island University Libraries.

Guide to the most frequently used entries in the American Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th edition. Prepared by the University of Washington Health Sciences Libraries.

Primarily used in the medical field. A consecutive number is given to each source as it is referred to for the first time. This number becomes the unique identifier of that source if it is referred to again and the same number is repeated.

The Raymon H. Mulford Library at the University of Toledo offers this comprehensive collection of links to Web sites that provide instructions to authors for over 3,500 journals in the health and life sciences.

Legal Citation (Bluebook)

Gives examples of Bluebook citations for various types of legal materials. Maintained by the New England School of Law.

Part of Cornell's Legal Information Institute, this site is maintained by Peter W. Martin. Revised to reflect changes in the most recent editions of the Bluebook and the ALWD Citation Manual.

Citing Government Publications

Provides examples of the most common government documents citations. Examples are based on Chicago/Turabian style. From the University of Memphis University Libraries.

A step-by-step guide to putting government publication citations into proper APA or MLA format. From the Arizona State University Libraries.

Writing Guides

Handbook by the Writers' Workshop, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign that explains and illustrates the basic grammatical rules concerning parts of speech, phrases, clauses, sentences and sentence elements, and common problems of usage.

A miscellany of grammatical rules and explanations, comments on style, and suggestions on usage created by J. Lynch, Rutgers University.

Produced by the Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this site offers an excellent collection of concise instructional materials for university students and instructors.