Special Collections and Archives

May 4 Glossary

Special Collections and Archives

May 4 Glossary

Glossary Term Definition
American Association of University Professors (AAUP) AAUP is a national organization of faculty, founded in 1915, which "defends academic freedom and tenure, advocates collegial governance, and develops policies ensuring due process." Some chapters, like the Kent chapter, are collective bargaining chapters. The Kent chapter of AAUP was involved in getting the university up and running after May 4, 1970 and also in memorializing and dealing with the aftermath of the event.
Black United Students (BUS) BUS is an African-American student organization, active since the 1960s. Many references within the collection are made to their 1968 campus walkout. In November 1968, the Oakland (CA) Police Department came to Kent State to recruit. Members of BUS and SDS opposed allowing OPD on campus. (Oakland was the home of the Black Panthers, a militant black organization, which frequently interacted with the police.) The two groups attempted to block administrative offices and prevent recruitment through a sit-in. Students were suspended, despite demands that no action be taken against them. BUS responded by staging a massive one week walkout in which 250 black students marched and left campus. SDS marched along side BUS, though they did not leave the campus.
Blanket Hill Council The Blanket Hill Council existed in 1977 as an alternative group to the May 4 Coalition. The council was not only committed to moving the gym, but also to nonviolence, which members felt other organizations were not.
Center for Peaceful Change (CPC) The Center for Peaceful Change was created in 1971 as a living memorial to May 4, 1970. The center, initially, was an independent unit that housed the school's peace studies program (or integrative change, as it was known then) with a focus on study, research, and public service. Its May 4 committee sponsored the annual candlelight vigil, as well as other May 4 activities, for the first few years. The center, now known as The Center for Applied Conflict Management (CACM), changed its name in 1994. It houses the university's conflict studies program and is attached to the department of political science.
Commission on KSU Violence (a.k.a Mayer Commission) The Commission on KSU Violence was formed, at the request of President Robert I. White, soon after the shootings on May 4, 1970. It existed for nearly eleven months from May 1970 until April 1971. During that time the group, chaired by Dr. Harold Mayer, met frequently and gathered information regarding the events surrounding the May 4th tragedy.
Committee for Non-Violence "The Committee for Non-Violence is dedicated to nonviolence (not as a negative concept) and to the securing and maintaining of the right to dissent in an atmosphere of nonviolence ... Though we are dedicated to the right of dissent, we are not a direct action group. Neither are we a police or vigilante group. We provide third party services which include communication (consultation, negotiation), marshalling, and the training of marshalls for ourselves and other interested groups." Both students and faculty were encouraged to join in this 1970-71 effort to maintain peace and insure freedom.
Concerned Citizens of KSU (CCC) The CCC was a group formed in 1969 in response to SDS's charter being revoked and the events leading up to that decision. The CCC, in its short 3 week existence, held a campus-wide referendum on the issue. The main focus of the group was the rights of students and student groups on campus. Much controversy surrounded the group, comprised of students and faculty, because they were perceived to be either associated with, or run by, SDS.
KSU in Exile When Kent State closed down after May 4, students and faculty were invited to Oberlin College and Case Western Reserve University to form a community in exile and determine where the university should go from there. In addition to providing a place for students and faculty to discuss the tragedy, seminars were held and a set of proposals were written.
Gym Annex Controversy The Gym Annex Controversy took place in 1977 when the university decided to build an annex to the gym on part of the site site itself. Students, alumni, and others protested the annex, even camping out on the site (Tent City), but were ultimately unsuccessful.
Jackson State Jackson State, a university in Mississippi, was the site of the shooting of 2 black students, James Earl Green and Phillip L. Gibbs, by police and highway patrolmen in 1970. Their deaths, 10 days after May 4, have linked the two schools in the minds of many.
"Kegley" Commission a.k.a University Commission to Implement a Commitment to Non-Violence (UCICNV) UCICNV was formed soon after the shootings of May 4, 1970, at the request of President Robert I. White. Professor Charles Kegley was officially named the committee chairman on May 21, 1970 and the commission was charged to , "...recommend methods and procedures to implement a commitment to nonviolence at KSU." The commission membership totaled fifty-two with twenty students, twenty faculty, ten administrators or staff personnel and two representatives from the community. The Commission met a total of thirty times during the summer; the last meeting was September 16, 1970. In addition, numerous task force meetings took place prior to each commission meeting. There were nine task forces: ROTC, Peace Keeping, Student-Faculty Justice, Black Student Concerns, Political Action, Communications, Campus Security, Student Contact, and University Governance. All recommendations made by the commission ultimately came from these task force meetings. Approximately thirty recommendations, or sets of recommendations, were made during the summer. Many were accepted by the university administration; some were modified, and a few were rejected. Some of the areas considered were ROTC visibility, selection of a new student ombudsman, twenty-four hour desk operation in all dorms, an emergency communications system, high priority for black student concerns, a new identification card system, and extending full voting privileges to undergraduate students.
Kent 25 The Kent 25 refers to the 25 students and faculty indicted by a grand jury on criminal charges for a total of 43 crimes in conjunction with the events of early May, 1970. Of the 25, one was convicted for interfering with a fireman, two pleaded guilty, one was acquitted, and the others had their charges dismissed for lack of evidence.
Krause v. Rhodes Krause v. Rhodes is the 1975 federal civil trial for Allison, Sandy, Jeff, Bill, and the nine wounded students. The case was found in favor of the defendants (Rhodes, the national guardsmen, etc.) and appealed. In 1979 the case was settled out of court for $675,000 and a signed statement.
Krause v. State of Ohio Krause v. State of Ohio was the initial civil trial for Arthur Krause. The case was appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, which in 1973 refused to hear it. Questions were then left unanswered as to whether the victims could sue the state, thus upholding the doctrine of of sovereign immunity. Another of the civil suits, Scheur v. Rhodes, did make it to the Supreme Court in 1974 and a ruling was handed down allowing the parents' claims to be heard in federal district courts.
May 4 Coalition The May 4 Coalition was a student organization at Kent, associated in later years with the Revolutionary Student Brigade. Formed in the spring of 1977, the coalition's focus was the "move the gym" movement protesting the building of a new gym annex near the site of the May 4 shootings.
May 4 Task Force (M4TF) " The May 4th Task Force was formed in October of 1975. In 1975 the Kent State University administration stopped their sponsorship and support of the annual commemoration programs held on May 4, saying they were no longer needed. Kent State officials declared that it had been "long enough" to grieve for these students. The May 4 Task Force was founded by Kent State students and victims of the May 4 shootings. Alan Canfora, Robbie Stamps, and Dean Kahler were three of the charter members. The Task Force felt that the truth about what happened in May of 1970 had yet to be told and that the lessons to be learned from the tragedy should be part of a continuous and living history. Since 1975 it has been the purpose of the M4TF to raise the level of awareness of students, faculty and the general public about the May 1970 shootings and the history of subsequent related events."
Peace Marshals Peace Marshals are students and faculty who try to maintain peace and order at events such as the memorial marches and activities. The group is reminiscent of the faculty who on May 4, 1970 tried to maintain order and peace among the crowd.
President's Commission on Campus Unrest (a.k.a. the "Scranton Commission") The Scranton Commission was appointed by Nixon and led by former governor of Pennsylvania William Scranton. This 9 member panel held hearings and looked into the events at both Kent State and Jackson State.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), was a "radical" student organization of the 1960s. As outlined in their 1962 Port Huron Statement, the group was committed to self-determination and participatory democracy, rather than representative democracy. In addressing the problems they found inherent in the American political system (and the world), SDS strove to correct these problems, becoming involved in both the Civil Rights movement and the protest movement against the Vietnam War. The organization died out in the early 1970s to be succeeded by a more radical faction known as the Weathermen, who advocated violent revolution.
Students Maintaining and Advocating Cooperation and Constructiveness at Kent (SMACCK) Students Maintaining and Advocating Cooperation and Constructiveness at Kent (SMACCK), a conservative student organization of the late 1970s, advocated stopping leftist propaganda on campus. They supported the building of the gym annex and Brage Golding's attempts to get rid of protesters and "outside agitators."
Tent City Tent City was the name given to the 1977 protest on the site of the proposed gym annex. The Gym Annex Controversy took place in 1977 when the university decided to build an annex to the gym on part of the site of the 1970 shooting. While the annex did not cover any of the actual spots where students were hit, it drastically changed the site itself. Students, alumni, and others protested the annex, even camping out on the site (Tent City), but were ultimately unsuccessful. Tent City is also referred to as Tentropolis.