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Kent State Shootings Oral History Collection

This collection contains audio recordings and full transcripts of interviews from the Kent State Shootings Oral History Project, which collects, records, and provides access to oral history accounts pertaining to the 1970 shootings on the Kent State University campus and their aftermath. Included are accounts by eyewitnesses as well as a wide variety of viewpoints: Kent State alumni, faculty, staff and administrators who were on campus that day; residents of the city of Kent; National Guardsmen; campus and city police; hospital personnel; and other persons whose lives were affected by these historic events.

To view a transcript or listen to a recording of an interview, please click on the appropriate links below. Some transcripts or recordings may be currently at the processing stage, or restricted due to stipulations by the donor. Analog recordings of some earlier interviews may be listened to in the Department and are available upon request.

If you recorded an oral history interview in the past, but do not see it listed here, please contact the department so that you can give us permission to release your interview.

All rights for the oral histories in this collection have been donated to Kent State University. Please contact Special Collections and Archives for information on use and reproduction of these interviews.

Updated by Cara Gilgenbach, September 2013.


A B C D E F G H J K L M O P R S T V W Y Z

NARRATOR

SUMMARY

TRANSCRIPT

AUDIO

A

     

Adams, Walter C.

A biology professor at Kent State in 1970 and one of the Faculty Senate observers who monitored the campus protests. He describes what he observed when the Ohio Army National Guard arrived on campus, what he witnessed at the burning of the ROTC building, and encounters he had with Guardsmen.

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Anderson, Jeanne

A Kent State University student in 1970 reflects about the loss of innocence and the fear that remained with her after the shootings. She describes seeing armed National Guardsmen on campus and the difficulties she had trying to telephone her parents after the campus was closed.

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Anonymous (Male)

A Kent State University student in 1970 discusses the ROTC building burning, as well as the rumors that it was going to happen. He describes the shootings, their aftermath, and how he got off campus.

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Anonymous (Female)

A woman who grew up in Kent, Ohio and whose father was a police officer for the City of Kent in 1970 discusses the events surrounding the shootings on the Kent State University campus, starting with the unrest in downtown Kent on Friday, May 1. She discusses learning about the shootings on the radio and describes seeing National Guardsmen standing on street corners in town. She mentions the death threats her father received and that her parents and sister were evacuated from their home in Kent due to a bomb threat.

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Arthrell, William G.

An undergraduate at Kent State University and one of the "Kent 25" discusses the events leading up to and following the shootings. He also describes his experiences in other antiwar demonstrations and various protests, including his role in opposing the construction of the Gym Annex in 1977.

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Ayers, Chuck

A former editorial cartoonist for the Akron Beacon Journal, now one of the authors of the comic strip Crankshaft, Ayers relates his memories of when he was a Kent State University undergraduate between 1966-1971. He interprets what happened on May 4, 1970, as well as events that occurred both leading up and following the shootings. He discusses several photographs he took on those early days in May, his role as an eyewitness for the Beacon Journal, and being interviewed by the FBI.

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B

     

Barnes, Frank C.

An Ohio State University graduate student in 1970 describes events that took place on his campus around May 4, 1970.

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Barrett, Bill

The Alumni Publications Editor at Kent State University in 1970 explains that he was an observer for the University News and Information Office on the day of the shootings. He discusses his job on that day, which was to be present at the protest rally and make general observations about what he saw.

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Bass, Barbara

A staff employee of the library at Rockwell Hall in 1970 describes her experiences on the day of the shootings. She talks about being locked in the building until the campus closed, and about the atmosphere on campus the following year.

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Benedict, Denny

A KSU undergraduate recounts his memories of the shootings on May 4, 1970. He talks about his family's reaction to the events as well as his difficulty finding work as a KSU student that summer.

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Bentley, Richard G.

A Kent State University professor in 1970 mentions his role as a member of the Faculty Senate and as a faculty marshal and describes the events that he witnessed preceding the burning of the ROTC Military Science Building. He also mentions teaching an advanced photography class on the morning of May 4, 1970, and how his class of 24 students spent the morning photographing the events taking place in the Commons area.

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Berns, Ellis

A Kent state University student in 1970 talks about being an eyewitness to the shootings. He discusses knowing Sandy Scheuer and being with her when she was shot and killed. He also describes throwing a jacket at members of the National Guard and seeing the jacket years later at the Krause v. Rhodes trial. Additionally, he discusses being interviewed by the FBI and his experiences testifying in various court cases.

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Bixenstine, Edwin and Anita

In 1970, Dr. Edwin Bixenstine was a professor in the Department of Psychology, and Dr. Anita Bixenstine a professor in the Honors College. Both describe where they were and what they remember about the events of May 4, 1970, including the National Guard camp near their home, and meetings that occurred over the summer between university faculty and townspeople. Also mentioned are Allison Krause's involvement in the Honors College, and experimental programs that developed as a result of May 4.

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Brauning, William

A Kent State University student in 1970 talks about how May 4 affected him, both in 1970 and the present, and discusses Glenn Frank's role in calming the students.

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Brendlinger, Nancy

A high school student and a prospective Kent State University student in 1970 discusses her observations and the effects that the shootings and the Vietnam War had on her personal life.

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C

     

Carson, John

Mayor of Kent from 1966-1969 and proprietor of W. H. Donaghy drugstore at the time of the shootings offers his perspective on the circumstances leading up to May 4, 1970, and the socioeconomic consequences that resulted for the city of Kent.

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Cartwright, Carol

President of Kent State University from 1991-2006 discusses the change in response to the May 4th event by her administration. She talks about the impact of an official culture study of the university community, her participation in the candlelight vigil at the annual commemorations, and other decisions and contributions made during her tenure as president.

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Collander, Ruth

A student at Kent State University in 1977 describes her experiences on campus during the protests against construction of the gymnasium annex on the site of the May 4, 1970 shootings. She discusses Tent City, people who threw themselves in front of the bulldozers, the use of tear gas, and the arrests that she witnessed.

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Cooper-Leff, Linda

An undergraduate at Kent State University from 1966-1970 conveys her memories of the shootings. She describes seeing armored personnel carriers on campus and discusses how she drove several people back to Cleveland after the campus closed.

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Costa, Mary Ann

An undergraduate student at Bowling Green State University in 1970 describes Bowling Green students' reactions to the shootings at Kent State University. She notes her participation as a student marshal and describes meetings and protest marches both on and off the Bowling Green campus. She also discusses a week-long student strike that was held at Bowling Green State University in protest of the shootings.

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Cox, Carolyn

The mother of a Colgate University student, Andy Cox, who died in a hiking accident on May 4, 1972, talks about how her family feels a deep emotional connection to what happened here, because their son dropped out of college as a direct result of the shootings and she has always thought of Andy as a 'fifth victim'.

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Crabtree, Steven R.

A ten-year-old Canton resident in 1970 describes a conversation he had with his father in the days after the shootings at Kent State University and recalls understanding for the first time what the generation gap was, because he and his father had such different reactions to the shootings.

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D

     

De Vos, Lloyd

An undergraduate student at Kent State University (class of 1970) describes his experiences on campus during the day of the shootings, including attending a music class with Sandy Scheuer, and how he walked part of the way from class towards the Commons with her and a group of other classmates. He also describes coming back to campus in June for the 1970 graduation ceremony.

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DeFrange, Timothy

A Kent, Ohio, resident and Kent State University student in 1970 describes what happened to him and his family the day of the shootings on campus. On May 4, 1970, DeFrange's father was dying and his mother was with him in the intensive care unit of Robinson Memorial Hospital (Ravenna, Ohio) when the wounded students arrived. DeFrange relates what his mother saw and heard of the doctors' and nurses' reactions.

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Delattre, Catherine

An undergraduate at Kent State University in 1970 offers her eyewitness account of the shootings. Additionally, she discusses being one of the few students who stayed on campus that summer as well as being interviewed by the FBI.

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Dorff, Juliann (Bissler)

A Kent Roosevelt High School senior in 1970 and daughter of the owner of Bissler's Furniture and Funeral Home describes the atmosphere in the city of Kent during the weekend before the shootings as well as the aftermath.

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Dressler, Laura

A Kent State University undergraduate in 1970 relates her memories of the event. She mentions an argument she had with a member of the National Guard a few days after the shootings, and talks about how she met Allen Ginsburg during the Creative Arts Festival on campus the following year.

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Dzeda, Bruce

A Kent State University senior in 1970 describes his experiences on campus and in the city of Kent during the hours after the shootings, including mentioning two friends from his dormitory who were among the wounded.

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E

     

Erwin, Michael

A Kent State University student in 1970 and one of the "Kent 25" relates his eyewitness account of May 1-4, 1970. He discusses his experiences being indicted and how he eventually learned that the charges against him had been dropped for lack of evidence

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Etzkin, Naomi (Goelman)

An undergraduate student at Kent State University in 1970 relates her eyewitness account of the May 4 shootings. She describes what she observed at the noon rally on the Commons and, as the last resident to leave her dormitory, she describes talking with National Guardmen, who were eating dinner in the cafeteria, about what had happened.

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F

     

Fanjul, Julio Arturo

A Kent State University junior in 1970 and a Cuban-American who left Cuba in 1960 to come to the U.S. describes, as an eye-witness, what happened with the burning of the ROTC building and being on the Commons when the shootings started.

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Fender, Eldon

A Kent State University undergraduate in 1970 gives his eyewitness account of the shootings. He mentions observing the confrontation between protesters and Guardsmen on Sunday, May 3rd, and describes watching Jeffrey Miller at the rally on Monday, May 4th. Finally, he offers his interpretation of the consequences of the events.

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Fifer, Linda

A student at Kent State University from Fall 1970 to August 1975 discusses how the May 4, 1970, shootings affected her life during her student years. She describes the first anniversary of the shootings and her fear that there would be more unrest and people hurt, and she relates a second-hand story told to her by a professor who knew Sandra Scheuer and who visited her family after her death.

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Fox, Rob

An undergraduate student senator at Kent State University in 1970 offers his perspective of the events of May 1-4, 1970, including the burning of the ROTC building, the helicopters buzzing over the town, and the actions of the students and Guardsmen.

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G

     

Gavacs, Joann

A Kent State University senior in 1970 discusses how the events of May 1-4, 1970 affected her despite her efforts to stay away from the turmoil of those four days. Additionally, she explains the pivotal role that the university has been for her throughout her life.

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Gessford, Ken

A teacher and a graduate student in the Kent State University School of Art at the time of the May 4, 1970, shootings describes events that took place near his home on South Lincoln Street in Kent.

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Goodwin, Mary

A Kent resident and sophomore in high school in 1970 discusses her memories of the May 4, 1970, shootings at Kent State University and her participation in the antiwar movement.

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Green, Elyse

A Kent State University freshman in 1970 shares what it was like to be on the Commons a short time after the shooting and her disorientation, and concludes with her analysis of why it happened.

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Grudzinski, Steven

A Kent State University senior in 1970 who was passing through the Commons when the demonstration began. He was in his dormitory, Leebrick Hall, when the shootings occurred. He was with a group of people there when a bullet came in through a window, went over their heads, and was embedded in a wall.

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Guidubaldi, John

A professor in the Counseling and Personnel Services Education Department at Kent State University in 1970 discusses his experiences. He talks about seeing protests and demonstrations while at Harvard in the late-1960s, then witnessing many of the events leading up to May 4, 1970 at Kent State. He also conveys what it was like being a citizen of Kent and the turmoil in the town during that time.

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H

     

Hammond, Ken

A Kent State undergraduate in 1970 recalls the events leading up to the shootings. He discusses being a member of SDS and how student protest differed then from now. He also talks about witnessing the shootings, being indicted as one of the "Kent 25," and the subsequent results of the Portage County Grand Jury. Additionally, he mentions his involvement with the "Tent City" protest of the Gym Annex.

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Hansan, John

A member of the 20th Anniversary Commemoration Committee at Kent State University in 1990 discusses Governor Richard Celeste's speech at the dedication of the memorial for the victims of the May 4, 1970, shootings at Kent State.

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Hansford, David

A senior at Roosevelt High School in May of 1970 discusses his reaction to the shootings, as well as the reaction of the city of Kent in general.

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Heasley, William Derry

A Vietnam veteran and an undergraduate at Kent State University in 1970 relates his memories of the events he witnessed on campus the day of the shootings. He discusses his assessment of the mood of the crowd that day and his observation that a small minority of people in the crowd were the ones who were shouting and agitating and that these were people that he had never seen in Kent before.

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Hickey, Paul

A Kent State University student in 1979, now a journalist, reflects on the meaning of what happened here and what it means both for his generation and the current generation.

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Hill, Henry Tyler

A Kent resident and teacher at Kent Roosevelt High School in 1970 describes the student unrest at her school, as well as the school's response to bomb threats they had received and to the May 4, 1970, shootings at Kent State University.

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Hill, Susan E. J.

A nine-year-old Akron resident in 1970 discusses the truckers' strike that took place in Akron during the days preceding the May 4, 1970, shootings. She discusses people's attitudes about the truckers and the National Guard.

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Homer, Mary

A resident of Kent, Ohio, and a student at Davey Junior High School (Kent, Ohio) in 1970, Mary Homer describes her memories from the day of the shootings at Kent State University. Her home was located near campus, and she describes the National Guard troops that were in her neighborhood for several days.

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Howe, Rebecca

An undergraduate student at Kent State University in 1970 discusses her memories of May 3 and 4, 1970. She describes returning to her dorm after lunch on Monday, May 4, seeing a trail of blood, and helping a wounded student get to the health center.

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J

     

Jedick, Peter

 

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K

 

 

 

Keith, Marsha

A seventh-grade student at the University School on the Kent State University campus on May 4, 1970, the day of the shootings on campus. In this oral history, she discusses her memories of that time. She describes the evacuation of the University School and also discusses how members of her family reacted to the events.

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Kirkbride, Amey

A six-year-old resident of Youngstown, Ohio in 1970 discusses what she understood about the shootings at Kent State University and her mother's reaction to the events.

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Kister, Janet and Mark

A brother and sister who were ages 5 and 7, respectively, at the time of the shootings, and living in Chagrin Falls, Ohio, recall first hearing the news on the day of their older sister's birthday party. They go on to discuss their father's opinion of what had occurred compared to their own.

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Koushel, Arthur

An undergraduate student at Kent State University in 1970 discusses being in the Commons area when the shootings took place and discusses how he had been a classmate of Dean Kahler's and knew Sandy Scheuer through a fraternity. He also describes testifying before the Scranton Commission (also known as the President's Commission on Campus Unrest), the nine-member panel appointed by President Nixon to investigate the events at Kent State and Jackson State.

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Krummel, Art

An Ohio National Guardsman in 1970 chronicles his experiences at Kent State University on the days of May 2-4, 1970. He describes a confrontation with a KSU faculty member at a roadblock that Saturday night, and another with protesters on Sunday evening. He mentions that his squad was guarding a facility off-campus at the time of the shootings, and offers his interpretation of the events.

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L

     

Lassan, Diane (Konos)

A high school student in Youngstown, Ohio, at the time of the May 4, 1970 shootings on the Kent State University campus, Diane Konos Lassan began attending Kent State University in 1972. She recalls her participation in the 1973 candlelight walk, vigil, and May 4th commemoration program and discusses her emotional involvement in the events.

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Lewis, Jerry

An emeritus professor of sociology conveys his memories of the events of May 4, 1970. He discusses his role as a faculty advisor to SDS and other radical student organizations in the late 1960s and the significance of the BUS walkout and Music and Speech protest in leading up to the events in 1970. He talks about being a faculty marshal on the day of the shootings, as well as his reaction to the recent addition of the site to the National Register of Historic Places.

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Lynott, Lisa

A Kent State University student beginning in 1985 and member of the May 4th Task Force discusses the aftermath of the 1970 shootings on campus. She details the positions and experiences of the May Fourth Task Force in the late 1980s and mentions taking part in a protest at the dedication of the gymnasium building named for James A. Rhodes on The University of Akron campus. [Note: this oral history was interrupted and left incomplete.]

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M

     

Mann, Ellen

A senior at Kent State University School in 1970 recounts her memories of May 4, 1970. She talks about being an eyewitness to the shootings and seeing Joseph Lewis get shot. She also discusses how she got expelled from high school on the same day, getting interviewed by the FBI, and finally meeting Lewis shortly before the 40th commemoration in 2010.

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Marek, Christopher

A Kent State University senior in 1970 tells about being in his dorm at the time of the shootings, hearing the shots, and what went through his mind then and after. He describes what happened to him and his friends during the evacuation from campus.

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McGregor, Marsha

A twelve-year-old on May 4, 1970, describes waiting at home with her mother for news of her sisters and brother who were on the Kent State University campus that day. One sister was at the University School and the other was in her dormitory, Terrace Hall, when the shootings took place. She relays their descriptions of seeing soldiers with guns and tanks on the streets.

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Mirman, Carol

A Kent State University student in 1970 and one of the "Kent 25" describes events that took place in downtown Kent on Friday, May 1, and discusses being in the Commons area on May 4 and being with Jeffrey Miller after he had been shot.

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Misheff, Sue

A freshman at Kent State University in 1970 describes the National Guard troops she saw on May 3, 1970, and beatings of students by Guardsmen that she witnessed. She talks about being in the Commons near Engleman Hall on May 4 when the shootings took place and listening to Dr. Glenn Frank afterwards.

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Moore, Carl M.

The Director of Forensics and Assistant Professor of Speech at Kent State University in 1970 describes his involvement in pivotal events leading up to, during, and after the shootings. Moore discusses his involvement in the incident at the Music and Speech Building in 1969, his role as chairman of the American Civil Liberties Union, and his participation in the Kent Legal Defense Fund.

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Moore, E. Timothy

A Kent State University undergrad in 1970, now Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, offers a broad, detailed overview of the events of May 4, 1970 and the KSU administrative response over the last forty years. He discusses the African-American perspective of the shootings as well as the official view of BUS (Black United Students), first as the organization's Minister of Art and later as President. Moore also conveys his thoughts about the Gym Annex controversy and the Memorial Design competition.

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Mueller, James

A student at the University of Akron in the 1960s discusses his memories of May 4, 1970, including his attempt on the following day to make a citizen's arrest of Governor Rhodes. He also talks about his more recent involvement with the May 4 Task Force.

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O

     

O'Brien, Marianne B.

A ninth-grade student at Davey Junior High School (Kent, Ohio) in 1970 describes trying to get home from school on May 4 and helicopters with searchlights going over her house.

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Ohio Army National Guardsman [name withheld]

An anonymous member of the 145th Infantry of the Ohio Army National Guard describes the events he witnessed on the Kent State University campus and in the City of Kent during the time of the shootings at Kent State. He also was a student at Kent State University at the time, but had to miss classes when he was called up for active duty to patrol the turnpike in Richfield, Ohio, during a trucker's strike. His unit was then moved to Kent on Saturday, May 2, 1970. He was on Blanket Hill by Taylor Hall, 30 yards behind the Guardsmen who opened fire.

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Ohles, Shirley

The wife of a Kent State University professor in 1970 relates a history of the memorial plaque placed in the Taylor Hall parking lot in memory of the students who died and were wounded in the May 4, 1970, shootings.

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P

     

Panagos, John

A new member of the Kent State University faculty in 1970 discusses his perception that the University administration was unsure of how to handle events such as the bomb threats on campus that spring. He also conveys how he learned that Sandra Scheuer, who had attended his class that morning, was one of the students that had been killed in the shootings.

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Peach, John

John Peach is Chief of Police and Director of Public Safety at Kent State University at the time of this interview. He grew up in Kent and had just started his career with the campus police force in the fall of 1970, during the aftermath of the shootings on campus. He provides a detailed discussion of the atmosphere in Kent during the late 1960s, as well as the increase in personnel and training that Kent State campus police underwent after the shootings took place. He also discusses President Glenn Olds' approach to resolving conflict, and the Gym Annex protests that took place in 1977.

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Pawlicki, Eleanor

A Kent State University undergraduate in 1970 discusses having been in a geography class in McGilvrey Hall when the shootings occurred. She goes on to describe completing her classes by correspondence and graduating in December, 1970.

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Perry, Murvin

The Director of the KSU School of Journalism in 1970 relates his memories of the event. He discusses where he was on May 4, 1970 as well as his interpretation of what happened on that day. He also talks about the completion of classes that summer and alumni who have gone on to distinction in photographic journalism.

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Pescatore, Robert

A Kent State University undergraduate in 1970 describes the unrest he witnessed on campus, including people throwing bottles, bricks, and rocks at the soldiers, as well as the military presence on campus: armed personnel carriers, soldiers, and jeeps. He describes his experience of being hit by tear gas while walking from the Prentice Hall cafeteria to class.

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Pittman, Curtis

A Kent State University student and member of BUS (Black United Students) in 1970 describes the atmosphere on campus and explains why many members of the black student community stayed away from the Commons on that day.

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R

     

Rissland, Rosann

A resident of the Kent community (as well as a KSU staff member today) offers her perspective of the events of May 4, 1970. She talks about the National Guard camping in her front yard beginning the weekend prior to the shootings, and initially hearing that National Guardsmen were among those shot. She discusses how frightened townspeople were of the students during that time, and the reasons for that fear. Additionally, she mentions the tunnel system underneath the university and how those tunnels were used by KSU police for riot control procedures.

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S

     

Schwartz, Michael

President of Kent State University from 1982-1991 discusses May 4-related events that occurred both before and during his administration. Dr. Schwartz talks about the 1977 Gym Annex controversy during Brage Golding's tenure and the Memorial Design competition in the late 1980s that culminated with the official dedication of the Memorial in 1990. He also discusses various concerns expressed by the Carter and Reagan Administrations, as well as Governor Richard Celeste's public apology for the shootings during the 1990 dedication.

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Semeraro, Vita E.

An employee in the Kent State University Registrar's office in 1970 discusses the student employees that she supervised and got to know, some of whom were active in SDS. She discusses how the Registrar's Office handled requests for access to student records by various law-enforcement and government agencies, including requests for the University records of the four students who were killed in the shootings on campus.

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Seybert, Barry

A student at Kent from 1974-78 discusses how he became involved in student government as well as becoming one of the founders of the May 4 Task Force. He was an active participant in Tent City and had the second tent that was put up on Blanket Hill.

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Sima, Joseph

A student at Kent State University from 1967-1971 describes what he experienced on May 4, 1970. He also discusses Terry Norman as well as Sima's own efforts to alert the FBI about information he himself had regarding the shootings.

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Snyder, J. Ronald

A captain and company commander in the National Guard on May 4, 1970 discusses the events of that day. He describes his mission and offers his interpretation of the shootings. Additionally, he mentions his Guard unit's involvement in the Akron race riots of 1968 and the truckers' strike in the spring of 1970, shortly before they were summoned to Kent.

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Sooy, Nathan R.

A student at Kent State University beginning in 1973 describes how he became acquainted with one of the wounded students, Dean Kahler, in a summer school class in 1973. He also discusses how he became active in the May Fourth Task Force and the annual commemorations and describes his involvement in the 1977 protests against the building of the Gym Annex.

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Sprance, James W.

A junior at Kent State University in 1970 discusses his memories of the days surrounding the May 4, 1970, shootings on campus. He describes being located near the burned ROTC Military Science Building in a crowd of about 500 people when the shootings started. He concludes by discussing his experiences as he left Kent after the campus had been closed and some of the difficulties he had that following summer.

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Stafford, Kathy

An undergraduate at Kent State University in 1970, who retired in 2008 as Vice President for University Relations, conveys her memories of the events in May of that year. She also discusses her participation on the President's Commission on KSU Violence that summer.

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Sterlekar, Ronald

A Kent State University alumnus and Vietnam veteran gives his eyewitness account of the events of May 1-4, 1970. He discusses his involvement with the Mobobrious PIT, a campus spirit organization, and explains why motorcycle gangs were in town that weekend. He also describes the local music scene and his later experiences in the U.S. Army.

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Swan, Scott E.

A seven-year-old Kent, Ohio, resident in 1970 describes his memories of the days surrounding the shootings on the Kent State University campus. He describes the tanks he saw on the playground at his elementary school and mentions that soldiers were using his school's gymnasium as a bivouac. He also describes the helicopters that went over his home at night and talks about seeing broken storefront windows in downtown Kent.

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T

     

Thompson, Tom

An undergraduate at Kent State University in 1970 describes watching the burning of the ROTC Building from his dormitory Johnson Hall. He mentions being acquainted with Allison Krause, and being close friends with Joe Lewis. He talks about trying to visit Lewis at Robinson Memorial Hospital.

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Titchenal, Stephen

A Kent State University undergraduate in 1970 discusses the events of May 2-4, 1970. He talks about following the National Guard with a tape recorder on the day of the shootings, then later being flown by helicopter to meet with Robert Taft in Cleveland, and finally going to New York as a KSU student representative and meeting the mayor of New York City. He also mentions being interviewed by the FBI.

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Treichler, F. Robert

An emeritus professor of psychology discusses what he saw on May 4, 1970. Dr. Treichler also gives a brief history of the psychology department during his early years as a faculty member in the 1960s and discusses how the department responded to the effects that the shootings had on the campus.

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Turcotte, David

A freshman at Southeastern Massachusetts University in 1970 describes his feelings after viewing what happened at Kent on the evening news and how he feels he has never been the same since. He reflects on the meaning of May 4 for himself and for our nation.

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Tyrrell, Brinsley

A professor in the Kent State University School of Art in 1970 relates his eyewitness account of the shootings from his position near Van Deusen Hall. He also discusses events that took place in the days following the shootings when the campus was closed and describes some of the experiences he had in Kent during the summer of 1970.

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Tyrrell, Lilian

The wife of Kent State University School of Art faculty member Brinsley Tyrrell describes an antiwar rally on campus on April 30 as well as an event she attended on campus on May 2, the night of the ROTC Military Science Building fire. She was at the rally in the Commons when the shootings took place and relates her eyewitness account of the events. She also describes her daughter's evacuation, by soldiers, from her kindergarten class and discusses her family's experiences during the summer of 1970.

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V

     

Vacarella, Jim

An undergraduate at Kent State University in 1970 describes the burning of the ROTC Military Science Building on Saturday, May 2, the confrontation between protesters and Guardsmen on Sunday, May 3, and then his eyewitness account of the shootings on May 4. He also discusses his interrogation by the FBI and his federal indictment for refusing to be drafted into the United States Army.

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Van Kirk, Albert

A Vietnam veteran and an undergraduate student at Kent State University in 1969 and 1970 remembers being on campus the day of the shootings in 1970. He discusses the campus atmosphere, the SDS, the Weathermen, and the FBI. He describes Jerry Rubin's visit to Kent State a week prior to May 4, 1970, seeing residents of Ravenna guarding their city with weapons, and his experience administering first aid to students wounded in the shootings.

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Vannoy, Winona

A physical education instructor at Kent State University in 1970 discusses the unrest in town and on campus in the days preceding the shootings. She discusses her classes on Monday, May 4, and describes a display of weapons that had been confiscated from students' rooms after the campus had been closed that was set up for the public to view in Wills Gymnasium. She also discusses meetings she and the other faculty in her department had after the shootings and how the students completed their classes by mail.

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Wascko, Janice (Gierman)

A freshman at Kent State University in 1970 talks about arriving at the Commons just as the shots were being fired. She discusses seeing Jeffrey Miller, the National Guard, armored personnel carriers, tear gas, and police. She describes sitting in the grass on Blanket Hill and listening to Dr. Glenn Frank and also describes encounters she and her housemates had with Guardsmen and local police following the shootings.

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Watkins, Richard Karl

A sophomore at Kent State University in 1970 discusses his memories of the days surrounding the May 4 shootings on campus. He describes watching the events from the third floor study lounge in Dunbar Hall and how he had been in a class that semester with Allison Krause and also knew two of the students who were wounded--Douglas Wrentmore and Tom Grace. Recorded in 1990, this is the first of two interviews by Watkins in this collection.

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Watkins, Richard Karl

A sophomore at Kent State University in 1970 again recounts his memories of being on campus when the shootings took place. He mentions seeing the burning of the ROTC Military Science Building and describes the mood of the crowd he saw there. He also discusses letters he received from his professors and how he was able to complete his classes after the campus had been closed. Recorded in 2000, this is the second of two interviews by Watkins in this collection.

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Whyde, John S.

A Kent resident and a teacher in the Crestwood Schools (Mantua, Ohio) in 1970, John S. Whyde discusses his memories of the shootings at Kent State University. He describes the military presence in the City of Kent, including tanks driving around town and helicopters with searchlights going over his home. He also describes his experiences driving home to Kent after work on the day of the shootings, and how he was stopped at a police roadblock and his car was searched.

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Wicks, Bernice, J.

A high school teacher at the University School (on the Kent State University campus) in 1970 describes hearing the shootings on May 4, 1970, and what happened at the University School that day.

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Wilen, William

A professor at Kent State University beginning in the fall of 1970 describes his first year teaching at Kent State, 1970-1971. He discusses the challenges he faced when the student teachers he was supervising experienced negative reactions from faculty at their practice schools because they were from Kent State. He describes his observations of and participation in the first commemoration of the shootings in May, 1971.

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Williams, Diane L.

A high school student at the University School on the Kent State University campus in 1970 discusses her memories and observations of the events that took place in Kent during the days preceding the shootings. She was in the Commons on May 4 and relates her eyewitness account of the shootings.

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Williams, Linda

A Ravenna, Ohio resident in 1970 describes being a patient at Robinson Memorial Hospital on May 4, 1970, the day of the shootings at nearby Kent State University. She recalls that her husband could not visit her because the hospital had been closed. She also relates her mother's experience working in the same hospital's Emergency Room when the Kent State shooting victims arrived.

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Williams, Mike

A Kent State University journalism student in 1970 discusses his memories of the days surrounding the May 4, 1970, shootings on campus. He was working in the Akron Beacon Journal's newspaper offices on May 4, 1970, and discusses the rumors that were circulating there about National Guardsmen being killed and buildings on campus burning.

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Wuer Kai Xi

A Chinese student involved in the Tiananmen Square incident, June 3-4, 1989 discusses the events at Tiananmen Square and Kent State. He also discusses attending Kent State's May 3, 1990, candlelight vigil for the shooting victims and how he was invited by the May 4 Task Force to speak at the 1990 commemoration.

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Yale-Peabody, Diane

A sophomore majoring in journalism at Kent State University in 1970 discusses how on May 4 she and her classmates chose to stay and have class rather than attend the rally. She talks about what was happening at her dormitory, Lake Hall, after the shootings, and also describes seeing Dr. Glenn Frank.

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Zbornik, John

A seventh-grade student in 1970 describes his feelings and reactions when he heard about the May 4 shootings at Kent State University. He discusses how he was affected by John Filo's photograph of Mary Ann Vecchio and Jeffrey Miller that he saw in the Cleveland Plain Dealer newspaper.

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Zurbuch, Lowell

A Kent State University professor in the College of Technology recounts what he saw on campus the day of May 4, 1970. He also discusses reactions among townspeople following the shootings and how his own perspective changed as a result of his experiences.

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